Travel Vaccines

Exceeding Expectations One Patient at a Time

Typhoid

Facts

Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), which only lives in humans.

Fecal Oral 

Consumption of food or water contaminated with feces from an infected individual or chronic carrier.


21 million cases worldwide annually (estimated).
Several studies have identified travelling children, those visiting friends and relatives, achlorhydria or the use of acid suppression therapy, and longer duration of travel-associated typhoid.

 

Symptoms

Fever, fatigue, headache, abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea (depending on age)

 

Severe case

Brain dysfunction, delirium, intestinal perforation, death.
The case-fatality ratio is approximately 10% for untreated cases in low-income settings and less than 1% for patients receiving care in high-income countries.

 

Prevention

Good hygiene measures, safe eating and drinking habits,and vaccination, should be considered:

  • Eat foods that have been thoroughly cooked and that are still hot.

  • Avoid raw/undercooked meat, seafood, salads and uncooked fruit or vegetables that cannot be peeled.

  • Frequent hand washing


     

Vaccine

All travellers travelling to typhoid-risk area(s) should be vaccinated against typhoid if indicated and needed. The oral typhoid vaccine ( Vivotif )is taken as a series of four capsules, started at least two weeks prior to leaving for a trip. The typhoid injection (Typhim) is a single injection and should be administered at least two weeks prior to a trip. Vivaxim is a combination vaccine that protects against Hepatitis A and Typhoid.

 

 


 

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