Exceeding Expectations One Patient at a Time
Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), which only lives in humans.
Consumption of food or water contaminated with feces from an infected individual or chronic carrier.
21 million cases worldwide annually (estimated).
Several studies have identified travelling children, those visiting friends and relatives, achlorhydria or the use of acid suppression therapy, and longer duration of travel-associated typhoid.
Fever, fatigue, headache, abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea (depending on age)
Brain dysfunction, delirium, intestinal perforation, death.
The case-fatality ratio is approximately 10% for untreated cases in low-income settings and less than 1% for patients receiving care in high-income countries.
against typhoid fever, including good hygiene measures, safe eating and drinking habits and vaccination, should be considered:
Eat foods that have been thoroughly cooked and that are still hot.
Avoid raw/undercooked meat, seafood, salads and uncooked fruit or vegetables that cannot be peeled.
Frequent hand washing
All travellers travelling to the typhoid-risk area(s) should be vaccinated against typhoid if indicated and needed. The oral typhoid vaccine ( Vivotif )is taken as a series of four capsules, started at least two weeks prior to leaving for a trip. The typhoid injection (Typhim) is a single injection and should be administered at least two weeks prior to a trip. Vivaxim is a vaccine that is a combination vaccine that protects against Hepatitis A and Typhoid.