Travel Vaccines

Exceeding Expectations One Patient at a Time

Yellow Fever


Yellow Fever:
Refers to jaundice that affects some patients.
Is endemic and intermittently epidemic in parts of Africa and South America.
Is unique among communicable disease because the International Health Regulation (IHR) govern the control of yellow fever
-The IHR outlined the requirements for proof of vaccination against yellow fever when traveling to specific countries.
20-50% of people who experience a severe case may die as a result.


Bite from an mosquito, primarily Aedes or Haemagogus species



Based on a modeling study, 

UP to 170,000 severe cases
Worldwide (estimated in 2013)


Symptoms: Fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, chills, loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting.


Most patients improve after the initial presentation. After a brief remission of hours to a day, approximately 15% of patients progress to a more serious toxic form of a disease.


Severe case: High Fever, with the liver and kidneys affected, jaundice, dark urine, abdominal pain with vomiting, bleeding from the mouth, nose, eyes or stomach, and eventually shock and multisystem organ failure.

Precautions against yellow fever, including avoiding mosquito bites and vaccination, should be considered:
-Vaccination certification may be required depending on destination.
-Take preventive measures when mosquitoes are most active (during daylight hours)
-All diagnoses of yellow fever made in Canada are required to be reported to public health authorities.
-Use a recommend insect repellent containing either Picaridin (20%) or DEET.
-Wear appropriate clothing (e.g. long-sleeved shirt, long pants)
-Use physical barriers, such as bed nets and window screens.
-Infected patients should be protected from further mosquito exposure during the first few days of illness to avoid contributing to the transmission cycle.




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