Travel Vaccines

Exceeding Expectations One Patient at a Time

Typhoid

Facts

Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), which only lives in humans.

Fecal Oral 

Consumption of food or water contaminated with feces from an infected individual or chronic carrier.


21 million cases worldwide annually (estimated).
Several studies have identified travelling children, those visiting friends and relatives, achlorhydria or use of acid suppression therapy, and longer duration of travel associated typhoid.

 

 

 

Symptoms: Fever, fatigue, headache, abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea (depending on age)

 

Severe case: Brain dysfunction, deirium, intestinal perforation, death.
The case-fatality ratio is approximately 10% for untreated cases in low income setting and less than 1% for patients receiving care in high income countries.

 

 

  • Precautions against typhoid fever, including good hygiene measures, safe eating and drinking habits and vaccination, should be considered:

    • Eat foods that have been thoroughly cooked and that are still hot.

    • Avoid raw/undercooked meat, seafood, salads and uncooked fruit or vegetables that cannot be peeled.

    • Frequent hand washing

 

 


 

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